Ecology. Individuals, Populations, and Communities. Part 1


  1. Foreword by the translation editor
  2. Foreword
  3. Introduction: Organisms
  4. Introduction: correspondence between organisms and the environment
  5. Historic factors
  6. Convergence and Parallel Evolution
  7. Similarity between communities and dissimilarity of forms within communities
  8. Specialization within species
  9. The correspondence between organisms and a changing environment
  10. Pairs of species
  11. Introduction: Conditions
  12. Temperature and organisms
  13. Ambient temperature
  14. Temperature, distribution and abundance of organisms
  15. Water in terrestrial habitats: relative humidity
  16. pH of water and soil
  17. Salinity
  18. Flow
  19. Soil structure and substrate nature
  20. Zoning of the seashore
  21. Pollutants
  22. Introduction: Resources
  23. Солнечное излучение как ресурс
  24. Inorganic molecules as resources
  25. Organisms as a food resource
  26. Space as a resource
  27. Resource classification
  28. Resource-friendly ecological niche measurements
  29. Introduction: Life as an Environmental Event
  30. What is an individual? Unitary and modular organisms
  31. Determination of the number of individuals
  32. Life cycles and quantitative description of fertility and mortality
  33. Organisms with an annual cycle
  34. Multiple breeding with overlapping generations
  35. Reproduction ratios, generation time, and population growth rates
  36. Single breeding with overlapping generations
  37. Reproduction, continuous in relation to the population and single in relation to the individual
  38. Continuous Multiple Reproduction: Human Demography
  39. Conclusion: Looking Forward
  40. Introduction: Migration and resettlement of organisms in space and time
  41. Patterns of distribution of organisms in space
  42. Laws of migration
  43. Resettlement
  44. Intra- and interpopulation differences in ability and propensity to resettle
  45. Resettlement and unrelated crossbreeding
  46. Peace and hibernation: settling in time
  47. Clone Settlement
  48. Introduction: Interactions
  49. Introduction: the nature of intraspecific competition
  50. Common signs of intraspecific competition
  51. Intraspecific Competition and Density-Dependent Mortality and Fertility
  52. Intraspecific competition and population regulation
  53. Intraspecific competition and density-dependent growth
  54. Quantitative assessment of intraspecific competition
  55. Introduction: Mathematical Models
  56. Discrete Breeding Population Model
  57. Continuous Reproduction: Logistic Equation
  58. Individual differences: asymmetric competition
  59. Territoriality
  60. Self-healing populations
  61. Introduction: Interspecific Competition
  62. Some examples of interspecific competition
  63. Some common features of interspecific competition
  64. Competitive exclusion or coexistence?
  65. Coexistence Due to Niche Separation: The Limit Similarity Hypothesis
  66. Inhomogeneity, Population, and Anticipatory Competition
  67. Apparent competition: a space free from enemies
  68. Interpretation of cases of separation of niches in nature
  69. Experimental confirmation of interspecific competition
  70. Experiments in natural conditions
  71. What is the basis of separation of niches
  72. Introduction: predator types
  73. The effect of herbivore on individual plants
  74. The effects of predation on the prey population
  75. The effect of food consumption on consumers
  76. Introduction: predator behavior
  77. The width of the range of food and food composition
  78. Ширина спектра питания с точки зрения оптимального добывания пищи
  79. Broad food behavior
  80. Functional answers: rate of consumption and food density
  81. Effect of Consumer Density: Mutual Interference
  82. Consumers and feeding spots
  83. Perfect free distribution: aggregation and interference
  84. Spotting and time: a game of hide and seek
  85. Aggregated Placement Behavior
  86. Use of feed stains in terms of optimal food intake
  87. Introduction: examples of population dynamics and the need to explain them
  88. The main dynamics models in predator-prey and plant-herbivore systems: a tendency to the appearance of cyclic fluctuations
  89. Self-limiting effects
  90. Heterogeneity, aggregation and partial shelters
  91. Functional Answers and Ollie Effect
  92. Multiple equilibrium states: explanation for outbreaks
  93. Summary
  94. Harvesting, fishing, hunting and culling
  95. Applications
  96. Introduction: Reducers and Detritophages
  97. Organisms
  98. Interactions between detritophages and their resources
  99. Conclusion
  100. Introduction: Parasitism and Disease
  101. Variety of parasites
  102. Transmission and Distribution
  103. The owner as a habitat
  104. Host reactions
  105. The population dynamics of parasitism
  106. Polymorphism and genetic changes in parasites and their hosts
  107. Introduction: mutualism
  108. Examples of mutualism involving behavioral relationships
  109. Mutualism, including breeding plants or animals
  110. Pollination Mutualism
  111. Mutualism involving the organisms that inhabit the digestive tract
  112. Symbionts living in animal tissues or cells
  113. Mutualism of higher plants and fungi – mycorrhiza
  114. Mutualism of algae and animals
  115. Mushroom Mutualism and Algae – Lichens
  116. Mutualistic nitrogen fixation
  117. The evolution of subcellular structures in symbiosis
  118. Models of mutualism
  119. Some common features of the life of the mutualists

Бигон М., Харпер Дж., Таунсенд К. Экология. Особи, популяции и сообщества. – Т. 1. – М.: Мир, 1989. – 667 с.