General geography


  1. Foreword
  2. Science and its task at the present stage of development
  3. A brief history of the development of the basic ideas of general geography
  4. The current stage of studying the geographical envelope
  5. Tasks and subject of study of general geography
  6. The main features of the structure of the universe and its evolution
  7. Solar system
  8. Earth
  9. Cosmic impact on the Earth
  10. Solar-terrestrial relations
  11. The Earth’s magnetosphere
  12. Earth magnetic field
  13. Movement of the Earth
  14. Figure of the Earth
  15. General characteristics of the geographical envelope
  16. Substance of the geographical envelope
  17. Components and structural levels of the geographical envelope
  18. Lithosphere
  19. Hydrosphere
  20. Cryosphere
  21. Atmosphere
  22. Biosphere
  23. The weathering crust
  24. The soil cover
  25. The horizontal structure of the geographic envelope
  26. Common structural features of the earth’s surface
  27. Belt-zonal structures
  28. Circumcontinental structure
  29. Landscape structure
  30. The boundaries of the geographic envelope
  31. Contact surfaces in the geographical envelope
  32. Symmetry and dissymmetry in the geographical envelope
  33. Autonomy of the geographic envelope
  34. Dynamics of the geographic envelope
  35. Energy sources in the geographical envelope
  36. Transformation and transport of energy and matter in the geographical envelope
  37. Transport and distribution of heat
  38. Atmospheric circulation
  39. The water cycle
  40. Biological and biogeochemical cycles
  41. Transfer of mineral substance
  42. Lithospheric circulations
  43. The main features of the transformation and transport of energy and matter in the geographical envelope
  44. Periodic motions in the geographical envelope
  45. Self-regulation in the geographical envelope
  46. Unity and integrity in the geographical envelope
  47. Sources of development
  48. Origin and Development of Geospheres. Geographic shell on the Precambrian stage
  49. The origin of continents and oceanic depressions
  50. Evolutionary history of life
  51. Development of the geographic envelope in the Phanerozoic
  52. Development of the geographic envelope in the Quaternary (Anthropogenic) period
  53. Basic regularities of nature development of the earth’s surface
  54. Anthropogenic changes in the geographic envelope
  55. Environmental monitoring
  56. Geographical envelope as a self-organizing system
  57. Fundamental management of energy flows
  58. Active influence on the atmospheric processes
  59. Active influence on the hydrosphere and water balance
  60. Technogenous flows of matter and the ability of natural systems to cleanse itself
  61. Polar ices and their planetary role
  62. Conclusion

Геренчук К.И., Боков В.А., Черванев И.Г. Общее землеведение. – М.: Высшая школа, 1984. – 255 с.