The development of an educational system that based on data from the first general census of the Russian Empire in 1897, one-day census of elementary schools of the Russian Empire in 1911 are covered, taking into account the native language and written language, religion, social status, religious structure of the population, the educational level of teachers, reform the education system, traced the emergence of new parts of the education system and their functioning in the province of Ekaterinoslav gubernia – Dnipropetrovsk region, the analysis of secondary education during the World War II.

Key words: educational system, the census, writing of the population, social status of the population.

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